ARCAA Contents & Abstracts, Volume 29, 2014

ISBN 978-0-89641-530-0

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    Butting Heads: Confronting Concussion Head-On Through Legislative Action Caroline Faure, Matthew Kaiserman — Across the United States, greater emphasis is being placed on the importance of appropriate concussion management protocols in sport, especially when those sports involve young athletes. At the forefront of this push are dozens of laws being enacted by state legislatures.  To date, all 50 states have enacted laws related to concussion in youth sports.  Legislative efforts are being further emphasized and supported by the National Football League (NFL). Through literature and legislative review and interviews with key legislative constituents, this paper purports to (a) provide a historical perspective on the surge of national youth sports concussion laws, (b) explore the rationale behind the NFL’s involvement in such state action, and (c) address the overall obstacles proponents of such legislation face. (1-31)

  • Systematic Observation of Coach Feedback in Elite Youth VolleyballMark D. Mann, Dean R. Gorman, Cathy D. Lirgg — The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of coach feedback during time-outs to the performance of 16-18 year old volleyball players in competitive match play. Systematic observation of coach feedback during 89 time-outs was recorded using the Coach Time-Out Observation Instrument (CTOOI). For the 879 feedback statements that were made during the time-outs, the CTOOI categorized coach feedback as to technical, tactical, or psychological. Data from the Game Performance Assessment Instrument were collected for the setter. Multiple regression did not show any feedback strategy to be significant for the entire group of setters in terms of performance improvement. However, for higher skilled setters, significant improvement in setter performance occurred when feedback was tactically oriented towards the tactical opponent in combination with technical internal feedback. For lower skilled setters, improvement in setter decision-making was significantly related to time-out feedback characterized by psychologically encouraging over and above discouraging remarks. (32-56)

  • Sponsorship of Intercollegiate Athletics and a Unique Approach to Reducing and Eliminating Culpability for Unrelated Business Income Tax James P. Strode, Paul R. Milton, Margaret A. Gilmore — Most research, analysis, and discussion of the uneasy relationship between intercollegiate athletics and the Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) enforcement of the unrelated business tax (UBIT) has come in the form of a summary of the history of the UBIT, and a legal remedy for how intercollegiate athletic department can best avoid liability for UBIT. This paper provides a historical background of one area that remains under constant IRS scrutiny, athletic sponsorships, and proposes a fresh, unique method for departments of intercollegiate athletics to reduce and potentially eliminate culpability for UBIT. An argument is made for intercollegiate athletics to more closely align with the exempt purpose of higher education: student learning. (57-83)

  • The Secondary School Football Coach’s Perspective of Sudden Death in Sport Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Douglas J. Casa, Kelly D. Pagnotta, William Adams, Benjamin McGrath, Janet Fink — The purpose of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the secondary school head football coach regarding sudden death in sport and their relationship with a certified athletic trainer (AT). Prior research has examined the first aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their knowledge of sudden death in sport or their relationship with an athletic trainer (AT). Four themes emerged from the data analysis process including: level of preparedness, misconceptions about sudden death in sport, activity modification strategies, and positive coach/athletic trainer relationships. The secondary coach possesses a limited knowledge of the potential causes of sudden death in sport as well as symptoms associated with conditions of sudden death in sport. Athletic Trainers working with the high school football coach can have a positive influence on their implementation of strategies to prevent sudden death in sport. (84-119)

  • Psychology of Football during the Early Years of Sport Psychology Alan S. Kornspan — In the early 1900s psychologists began to discuss how they could help football coaches select athletes. Specifically, the use of laboratory instrumentation to measure reaction time was suggested as a way to apply psychology to football. The present manuscript provides an overview of the beliefs of psychologists and coaches between the 1890s and 1930s as to how psychology could be applied to football. Additionally, the seminal research collaboration between psychology professor Walter R. Miles and Glen “Pop” Warner will be summarized. Details will be provided to demonstrate how initial research by Miles led to numerous investigations of the reaction time of high school and collegiate varsity football players spanning over seventy years of research. (120-146)

  • Pressure and Rule Breaking in Intercollegiate RecruitingAmanda L. Paule-Koba — The world of Division I recruiting can be an extremely complicated process to follow. With so many rules and regulations, coaching staffs must be mindful to adhere to all the rules the NCAA puts forth. However, this is not always the case. Rule breaking among NCAA Division I coaches has received coverage and discussion in the popular media. However, there has been little empirical research examining coaches’ motives for bending or breaking the rules. It could be hypothesized that there is a link between the pressures placed upon coaches to win and his or her decision to engage in rule breaking. A study was conducted that examined 25 Division I coaches experiences with the recruitment process. Through the use of a qualitative methodology, the coaches were interviewed about the pressures of their job, their opinions about the NCAA rules, incidents of rule breaking, and their thoughts on why some coaches choose to break the rules. (147-167)

  • Motivations to Recruit International Student-Athletes: A Pilot Study Robin Hardin, Sylvia Trendafilova, Beth A. Kistler, Gi-Yong Koo — The purpose of this study was to explore dimensions as to why collegiate coaches recruit international student-athletes. A questionnaire was designed and pilot-tested with National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I tennis coaches as to why they recruit international student-athletes. Sixteen factors emerged from the literature review for testing, and the exploratory factory analysis resulted in a three-factor model explaining 75% of the variance. The factors were labeled as 1) intangibles, 2) physical characteristics, and 3) lack of American talent. Dimensions of 11 factors tested collapsed into the factor of intangibles which included characteristics such as motivation, determination, and coachability. The lack of domestic talent was a factor but there still has to be the basic tenants of what makes someone an elite athlete for the coach to consider recruiting them. The potential student-athletes must have the intangible qualities that coaches want as well as physical capabilities to compete at a high level. High school coaches and potential student-athletes should take note of this and emphasize these characteristics to college recruiters. Intangible qualities are difficult to measure but coaches at all levels should take note of their importance in the recruiting process. (168-192)

  • Case Study of an Expert Intercollegiate Wheelchair Basketball Coach Scott Douglas, Brent Hardin — The purpose of this case study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the processes by which an expert wheelchair basketball coach acquires and develops the knowledge and attributes necessary to succeed in coaching intercollegiate wheelchair basketball. This will be accomplished by examining, through a life history approach, the coach’s background, methods and sources of acquiring coaching knowledge, and coaching characteristics that were most meaningful toward his growth as a coach. One researcher observed, interviewed, and analyzed one expert intercollegiate head wheelchair basketball coach. This case study focuses on the life events of the coach to illustrate how his background and experiences in coaching and sport have shaped the development of his coaching practice. (193-212)

  • The One-Year Impact of a Certified Strength and Conditioning Coach on NCAA D-III Football Team Matthew Hanson, James Day — Due to significant changes in NCAA athletics over the last 100 years, an increased reliance and demand for certified strength and conditioning specialists has been noted. Over 96% of all NCAA Division I institutions have at least one full-time strength and conditioning coach, however less than 66% of NCAA Division III institutions have even a part time position. The purpose of this study was to look at the one-year impact of a Certified Strength and Conditioning Coach (CSCC) on an NCAA Division III football team. This study examined the changes which occurred during the academic year before and after the addition of a full time CSCC. Mean pre- to post-year change measures for bench press 1 RM and maximal 40 yard dash from the year prior to the hiring of a CSCC were compared to the first year the CSCC was hired. Mean change measures for both bench press 1RM (t (36) = 2.726, p = .004, α = .05) and 4-yard dash (t (15) = 1.853, p = .041, α = .05) yielded statistically significant differences. The findings of this study provide support for the benefits of adding a full‐time CSCS to the staff at NCAA Division III institutions. (213-226)

  • Ethics in Coaching: A Pilot Study of Coaches’ Perspectives on Adjuncts of the Canadian Coaching Certification ProgramEmilio Landolfi — A nine-item questionnaire-based survey was conducted with 12 National Canadian Coach Certification Program (NCCP) workshop participants’ to explore coaches’ perspectives on adjuncts to existing (NCCP) guidelines. All participants’ were relatively new to coaching (1 to 2 years’ experience), and coached adolescents’ at the community-based recreational level. While a dominant theme amongst research participants’ was that 'specific' training in ethical decision making during coach certification programs is highly valued, results indicate that 50% were unaware of some of the more recent Coaching Association of Canada's (CAC) 'ethics-based' initiatives. However, 92% of participants’ strongly supported completing the "Make Ethical Decisions" (MED) online evaluation during their coach training. In addition, 75% favored establishing a formal advisor program whereby more experienced coaches’ would be assigned mentor-type roles to newer members of the NCCP, and 60% advocated developing a ‘coaching philosophy’ which would help guide their coaching practice. (227-258)


  • Spit Tobacco Use and Policy Enforcement by High School Baseball Coaches: Prevalence and Implications for Intervention Ted Eaves, Robert W. Strack — Spit tobacco (ST) has proven to be a significant health concern especially in sports such as baseball. Coaches can be positive role models for their athletes and are essential in the effort to enforce tobacco use policies and reduce ST use/addiction. A spit tobacco survey was completed by 93 baseball coaches attending the North Carolina Baseball Coaches Association to assess ST use by coaches and their players, as well as to assess the policy enforcement practices of coaches. This study attempts to begin the examination of ST use prevalence among coaches and players and its influence on the enforcement of current ST use policies. Results revealed 32% of respondent coaches were current ST users and significant difference was present between ST using coaches and non-using coaches with regard to allowing players to use ST during practice and stating they make an active effort to enforce tobacco ban policies. Implications of findings are discussed. (259-273)


  • Managing Sport Events, Reviewed by Joe Duerksen (274-276)
  • Social Media in Sport Marketing, Reviewed by Devon Wilde (276-279)
  • Trading Bases: A Story about Wall Street Gambling and Baseball, Reviewed by Dr. Allyn Byars (279-281)
  • Winning the Athletic Mental Game, Reviewed by Dr. Warren K. Simpson (281-283)
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