Art Education

by CATHERINE MOSHOU ABRAMS
1st ed., September 1995, 303 pages, $31.95
ISBN 978-0-89641-243-9


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This text is intended to be used for instruction in undergraduate and graduate level Art Education introductory courses at the college or university level. It offers the prospective art education major an orientation to the field of art education. Art as a discipline and methods of teaching art based on both theoretical knowledge and practical teaching experiences are considered and explored. After a brief introduction to art education and an historical survey of art education in the United States, the book presents ways of carrying out field observations, planning art curricula, and designing lesson plans and unit lessons. Other topics covered are models and methods of teaching, motivation, classroom management, testing and evaluation, multicultural and interdisciplinary instruction, and art instruction for gifted students and students with special needs. The second part of the book deals in detail with art lessons in art history, art criticism and aesthetics. The book follows the educational philosophy of Discipline Based Art Education and is the only text on the subject that presents and analyzes the National Art Standards, the "America 2000" Education Goals, and methods of assessment in art.


CONTENTS

Introduction: WHAT IS ART EDUCATION
Why Include Art in the Public School Curriculum

Chapter 1: ART EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES
Part I: THE 18th AND 19th CENTURIES: The Forerunners
The Kindergarten Movement and Art Related Activities • The Oswego Normal School • The Massachusetts Drawing Program • Art as Vocational Skill • The Sloyd Method • The Organic Skill Method • Arts and Crafts Movement • Art as Appreciation of the Fine Arts • Comprehension Questions •

Part II: THE 20th CENTURY: The Child Centered Movement
The Progressive Education Movement • Integrated and Correlated Approach • Art in Society Approach • Creativity and Self-Expression Approach • The Discipline Based Art Education • America 2000: Education America Act • National Arts Standards • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 2: THE ARTISTIC DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN
Scribbling Stage: Nursery and Kindergarten • Symbol Making Stage: Elementary School • The Age of Realism: Middle School • Art as Conscious Choice: High School • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 3: ART FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
Physically Impaired Children • Mentally Retarded • Emotionally Disturbed • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 4: ART INSTRUCTION FOR THE ARTISTICALLY GIFTED
General Characteristics • Behavior Characteristics • Programs for the Artistically Gifted • Artistic Instruction for the Talented • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 5: THE ART LESSON AND THE ART UNIT
Part I: THE ART LESSON
Lesson Preparation • Lesson Planning and Implementation • Follow-up Activities • Standardized Lesson Formats

Part II: THE ART UNIT
Activity Based Unit • Subject Based Unit • Unit Lesson Samples • Methods of Instruction • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 6: OBSERVATION OF AN ART LESSON
Preparation for the Visit • Observation and Recording of the Classroom Activities • Review and Data Analysis • Field Observation Reports • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 7: THE ART CURRICULUM
Art Curriculum Approaches • Types of Curricula • Curriculum Sequencing • Curriculum Goals and Objectives • Functions and Domains of the Art Curriculum • Designing an Art Curriculum • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 8: MODELS AND METHODS FOR TEACHING ART
The Concept Analysis Model • Application of the Concept Analysis Model • The Creative Thinking Model • Application of the Creative Thinking Model • The Experiential Learning Model
Application of the Experiential Learning Model • The Group Inquiry Model • Application of the Group Inquiry Model • Teacher's Assessment of the Student • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 9: MOTIVATION IN THE ART ROOM
Brainstorming • Hands on Demonstration • First Hand Observations • Museum and Field Trips • Visuals and Other Teacher's Aids • Art Synectics • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 10: CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IN THE ART ROOM
Teacher-Student Relation • Rules and Procedures • Methods of Classroom Disciplining (Management) • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 11: ASSESSING LEARNING IN ART
Methods of Evaluating • Types of Assessment of the Student's Performance • Teacher-Made Art Tests • Guidelines for Art Testing • Sample Art Test for Middle School • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 12: TEACHING DRAWING
Introduction • Some Dos and Don'ts • What is Drawing • Why Teach Drawing • Drawing Tools • Drawing Tools and Supplies for Classroom Use • Instruction in Drawing • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 13: TEACHING PAINTING
What is Painting • Why Teach Painting • Painting Tools • Paint Surface • Pigments • Color Pencils, Color Chalk, Pastel Sticks, Oil Crayons • Painting Tools and Supplies for Classroom Use • Color Pigments • Brushes • Miscellaneous Tools and Equipment • Instruction in Painting • Finger Painting • Brown Paper Life Size Portraits • "Change the Mood" Exercise • Monochromatic Compositions: Tints and Shades • Transparent Flat and Opaque Color • Color Mixing and Blending • Simplifying Color • Local Color • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 14: TEACHING SCULPTURE
What is Sculpture? • Why Teach Sculpture? • Sculpting Media and Tools • Media • Tools and Equipment • Glazes • Sculpting Media Tools and Supplies for Classroom Use • Instruction in Sculpture and Ceramics • Play Dough Manipulations • Plasticine Diorama • Assemblage with Found Objects • Wire Projects • Beats • Clay: Low Relief Tile • Clay: Free Standing Figure • Ceramics: Pinch Pot Coil Pot and Slab Container • Casting in Plaster • Carving • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 15: TEACHING PRINTING
What is Printing? • Why Teach Printing? • Printing Media and Tools • Printing Surfaces • Pigments • Tools and Equipment • Printing Media Tools and Supplies for Classroom Use • Instruction in Printing • Stamping • Rubbings • Stenciling • Monoprints • Glue Printing and Yarn on Cardboard Printing • Textured Surface Printing • Sandpaper Print • Styrofoam, Linoleum and Wood Prints • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 16: TEACHING GRAPHIC DESIGN
What is Graphic Design? • Why Teach Graphic Design? • Graphic Design Media and Tools • Surfaces • Writing Tools • Coloring Media • Tools and Equipment • Graphic Designing Media Tools and Supplies for Classroom Use • Instruction in Graphic Design • Elements of Design Exercises • Principles of Design Exercises • Lettering • Text Illustration • Product Packaging • Comprehension Questions

Chapter17: TEACHING A RAINBOW OF STUDIO SKILLS: WEAVING AND PAPER ARTS
Weaving • What is Weaving? • Why Teach Weaving? • Weaving Media and Supplies • Instruction in Weaving • Paper Weaving • Cardboard Weaving • Wooden Frame Yarn Weaving • Paper Arts • Teaching Paper Arts • What are Paper Arts? • Why Teach Paper Arts? • Paper Arts Media and Tools • Paper • Tools • Instruction in Paper Arts • Paper Making • Paper Casting • Paper Collaging • Paper Manipulations/Paper Mechanics • Paper Maché Sculpture • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 18: TEACHING ART HISTORY
The Purpose of Incorporating Art History in the Art Lesson • The Art History / Studio Skills Lesson • Types of Art History / Studio Skills Lesson • Artist Centered Art Lessons • Period or Style Centered Art Lessons • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 19: TEACHING ART CRITICISM
The Purpose of Incorporating Art Criticism in the Art Lesson • Art Criticism Methods to be Used in the Classroom • A 5-Step Art Criticism Method • Application of the 5-Step Art Criticism • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 20: TEACHING AESTHETICS
What is Aesthetics? • What is Art? • Reasons for Valuing Art • What Makes an Object "Art" • What Makes a Person an "Artist" • Teaching Aesthetics to Children • Topics of Study in Aesthetics • The Nature of Art • Values in Art • The Artworld • Artistic Expression • Aesthetic Experience • The Art Object • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 21: THE INTERDISCIPLINARY ART LESSON
The Interdisciplinary Art Lesson • The Connected Model • The Shared Model • The Sequenced Model • The Webbed Model • Interdisciplinary Models of Teaching Art • From Verbal to the Visual • From the Visual to the Verbal • 3-D or 2-D Reconstruction of an Era • Contemporize • Dramatize and Produce a Puppet Play Relating to the Theme • Serialize Events in at Least Three Time Slots • Create Maps, Dioramas, Murals, Displays, Mobiles • Make-believe Newspapers, Ornaments and Crafts of a Period • Comprehension Questions

Chapter 22: THE MULTICULTURAL ART CURRICULUM: WHAT, WHY, HOW
What is Multicultural Curriculum? • Why an Ethnic Awareness (Multicultural) Lesson is Needed • Difference Not Deficiency • How to Teach an Ethnic Awareness (Multicultural) Lesson • Six Curriculum Approaches • Three Teaching Models • One Culture, One Object • One Culture, Many Objects • Many Cultures, One Object • Comprehension Questions

Epilogue: THE ART TEACHER: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Catherine Moschou Abrams currently teaches at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, PA. She is coordinator of Museum Studies. Catherine received her B.Sc. from the American College of Greece, her a M.A. and PhD. from New York University. She has taught painting and sculpture workshops at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in Manhattan New York, as well as art history and advance drawing and painting at the Brooklyn Museum. Abrams is a member of the American Art Museums, the National Art Education Association, College Art Association and many more.