ARCAA Contents & Abstracts Volume 20, 2005

ISBN 978-0-89641-419-8

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    The Influence of Impression Management and Self-Deception upon the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory — 2 Subscales Anthony E. Bourgeois, Suzanne T. Bell, Michael Meyers, Arnold LeUnes — The primary purpose of this research was to determine the susceptibility of Martens’ Competitive State Anxiety Scale (CSAI-2) to socially desirable responding. The Impression Management (IM) and Self-Deception (SDE) scales of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) served as indices of socially desirable responding. Participants were 470 undergraduate volunteers who completed the BIDR, and the CSAI-2 scales. The CSAI-2 scales were minimally affected by IM bias, but significant relationships were observed between the SDE index and Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety and Self Confidence subscales. Males reported significantly higher self-confidence regarding sport competition. Females scored higher on IM than did males; however, males reported higher scores on SDE than did females. (1-10)

  • The Effect of Single-Leg Resistance Training on Leg Strength and Power in Division II Women Volleyball Players Kevin McCurdy, George Langford, Mike Doscher — The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single-leg resistance training on several measures of single- and double-leg strength and power in collegiate women volleyball players. Five NCAA Division II women volleyball players participated in the study. The subjects’ single- and double-leg strength were measured with free weights during a pre- and post test. The subjects’ single- and double-leg vertical jump height and power production were measured with timing mats that were interfaced with a computer (Kinematic Measurement System). After 10 weeks of single-leg strength and plyometric training, the women’s strength significantly increased 16.91 kg and 12.82 kg on the single- and double-leg squat, respectively. Single-leg vertical jump height significantly increased 3.35 cm while double-leg vertical jump height increased 2.54 cm. The subjects’ single- and double-leg relative power approached significant improvement. The results indicate that single-leg resistance training effectively improves single- and double-leg strength and power. (11-26)

  • The Role of Tacit Knowledge in Becoming a Varsity Athlete James Galipeau, Pierre Trudel — Recent research in the areas of business and education has examined the learning process in groups using a social theory of learning (Wenger, 1998a), however there has been no research in this area to date on sport teams. Therefore, using Wenger’s (1998b) social theory of learning, this research sought to examine the development of athletes in a varsity sport team using the communities of practice framework. More specifically, we examined whether the three dimensions of a community of practice (mutual engagement, joint enterprise, and shared repertoire) could be observed within the three main areas of development of the Canadian Inter-university Sport system (athletic, academic, and social). One-hour, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-four female athletes from two coactive varsity (university) sport teams. Results were analyzed qualitatively and highlight the findings that a) players learn from each other, b) players may allow other players to focus on or assist with academic pursuits, c) players have social interactions apart from formal team functions and d) players may create norms or rules that are different from those set by coaches. Suggestions from the literature on how to nurture the community of practice of athletes on a team are discussed. (27-49)

  • An Assessment of High School Athletic Coaches Knowledge of Exercise—Induced Asthma Bonnie L. Van Lunen, Shannon Wilson, Lynn Ridinger, Elizabeth A. Dowling — Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a common disorder that occurs in individuals who compete in recreational activities. The purpose of this study was to determine high school athletic coaches’ knowledge of EIA. The research findings revealed that the average assessment score was 49%, females scored higher on the assessment, and asthmatics knew more about EIA. No relationship was found between the number of years coached and overall assessment score. A significant difference was found between all three sections of the assessment with the coaches having the most knowledge about recognition, followed by management of EIA and then prevention. Further research should examine the effectiveness of an EIA workshop on increasing knowledge of coaches. (50-64)

  • Organizational Culture Perceptions of Intercollegiate Athletics Department Members Richard M. Southall, Douglas E. Wells, Mark S. Nagel — This study was designed to investigate the organizational culture perceptions of four intercollegiate athletic departments all of whom were members of the same conference. Members, to guide their organizational behaviors, often use organizational culture, basic patterns of organizational beliefs. A multiple-perspective theory of organizational culture was used as the theoretical foundation for this study. The results, after extraction of descriptive statistics, were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) statistical procedures. The study’s results revealed significant differences in organizational culture perceptions between sampled male and female sport coaches, and revenue and non-revenue sport coaches. (65-93)

  • Gender Disparities in Career Outcomes of Assistant Coaches: Discrimination or Capital Deficiencies Kelly J. Stumph, Michael Sagas — The purpose of this study was to examine gender disparities across a number of important career related outcome variables among women’s soccer assistant coaches, including career success indicators (i.e., salary, promotions, and career satisfaction) and a career motivation indicator (i.e., desire to head coach). Further, this study established if gender disparities across these variables could be attributed to gender differences in the attainment of human and social capital accrued by the coaches. Data were gathered from 155 NCAA Division I soccer coaches (55 male, 100 female). Results indicated a gender disparity for the desire to head coach variable, but not for the three career success outcomes. Further, the male coaches indicated a greater amount of human and social capital than the female coaches with regard to gender similar networks, playing experience, and college coaching experience. However, these differences failed to mediate the gender disparity noted on the desire to head coach variable, providing support for the prevalence of discrimination in college coaching. (94-118)

  • Providing a Satisfaction Foundation: Differences in Men and Women Scholastic Coaches of Girl’s SportsMichael Smucker, Warren Whisenant — Over the last 30 years, the percentage of women who coach at the interscholastic level has continued to drop. Previous research investigating this lack of representation has analyzed the work related variable of job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding regarding job satisfaction of men and women who coach girls’ high school sports. The relationship between job satisfaction and job turnover has been well documented in the organizational behavior literature and the coaching literature. According to previous work in the coaching field, job satisfaction has been found to be an important work related variable, critical to retention and turnover (Chelladurai & Ogasawara, 2003; Sagas & Ashley, 2001). By understanding the job satisfaction differences based on gender, a more complete model of retention can be developed. Male and female coaches (n=202) employed full-time at Texas High Schools completed a questionnaire containing the Job Descriptive Index (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969), the Job In General (Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Gibson, & Paul, 1997), and demographic information. The findings indicated that the women who coach were significantly more dissatisfied (p≤.05) with their co-workers and less satisfied with their supervision than their male cohorts. Also, satisfaction differences were found based on the gender of the coaches’ athletic director. (119-138)

  • Individual Work Rate of College Soccer Players Jaime Orejan, Dan Drane, Andy R. Dotterweich — The work rate of individual players in soccer can be indicated to a large extent by the total distance covered during a game. The distance covered is representative of the severity of the work and also each player’s individual contribution towards team effort. The purpose of this paper is to analyze work rates of individual position players in soccer so coaches will have a better understanding of training techniques needed for each position. Thirty-eight Division 1 collegiate soccer players were analyzed during competition play to determine an estimated distance covered per game. Movement was divided into jogging, sprinting and walking for field players. Jogging backwards was added for goalkeepers. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to examine the effects of position on distances jogged, sprinted, or walked. The results show that there were statistically significant differences between positions and type and distance of movement. (139-153)

  • Communication Problems in Professional Sports: The Case of Greece Laios Athanasios, Scott Crawford — In terms of successful management a key integral feature has to be effective communication. All coaches, whether it be in the amateur or professional domain, have to communicate with clarity and conviction. This research is based on a review of literature and the responses of 24 (n = 24) Greek professional coaches in team sports. The focus of the study was three fold- a) explore communication barriers between coaches and players; b) define basic communication principles; c) suggest strategies to facilitate communication. The five most significant problems in the player/coach “disconnect” were environmental factors (e.g. an away game crowd); time constraints impacting on the communicated message; the language medium with a cosmopolitan collection of players; the receptiveness of the players to “barked” instructions from coaches; and finally the possibility of the team reflecting a negative reaction and arousal to the coaches instructions and directions. (154-163)

  • Perceived Effect of Incumbent versus New Head Coaches on State Cognitive Anxiety Levels of Division I College Athletes Jennifer Beck, Mark Maneval, Jerry Phillips — As intercollegiate athletics continues to grow, the pressure to win intensifies. Over the recent years, coaching turnover has increased and many athletes are faced with organizational change. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to measure the perceived effect of incumbent versus new head coaches on the evaluation of cognitive state anxiety levels of Division I college athletes. Returning varsity collegiate athletes with incumbent head coaches (N=201) and varsity athletes that experienced a head coaching change (N=54) were surveyed for the study. The survey was constructed with four focus areas: (1) overall anxiety, and anxiety related to (2) scholarship issues (3) coaching relations, and (4) competition/performance. Independent sample t-tests revealed no statistically significant differences between athletes who experienced incumbent versus new head coaches. However, statistical significance was discovered between team sport athletes (M=1.43, SD= 2.06) when compared to individual sport athletes (M= 2.67, SD= 2.14) in terms of scholarship (p<0.05), and between males (M= 1.70, SD= 1.62) and females (M= 2.34, SD= 1.86) in the competition/performance category (p<0.05). (164-180)


  • Performance Enhancement for Athletes: Hiring a Strength Coach Outside of the College or Professional Setting — Paul Manfre, Peter Ttlebaum — In the last decade sports scientists have shown research specific responses of younger people to intensive strength and conditioning practices. The basics of hiring a private enhancement specialist are not unlike hiring a strength coach at a collegiate level. Certification through the National Strength and Conditioning Association as a strength and conditioning coach and/or certification through USA Weightlifting as a Club or Sports Performance Coach is also the industry standard. In the college setting, liability insurance is covered by the university. In private practice, liability is very easy to acquire and should be a good indicator of the intentions of the individual offering services. If individual liability insurance has not been secured, warning flags should raise for the parents of the athlete. (181-189)

  • Sport Professionals and Professional Development Veronica Snow, Warren K. Simpson, Allyn Byars, Frank Ashley — The need for professional development for sport professionals has never been greater. The changing environment and increase in sport participation and popularity of sport requires professionals to adapt to be successful. Professionals must possess people skills, organizational skills, and technological knowledge. The business aspect of sports requires professionals to look at the “big picture”. (190-207)


  • The ADHD Affected Athlete, by Michael E. Stabeno, reviewed by Warren K. Simpson (208-209)
  • Stretch your Mind & Body: Tai Chi as an Adaptive Activity, by Duane A. Crider & William R. Slinger, reviewed by Melissa San Angelo (210-212)

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